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Pound, Ezra - Poems and Translations


Ezra Pound

Poems and Translations

 
"Richard Sieburth's huge edition of Pound's Poems and Translations for The Library of America devotes many pages to the young man 'out of key with his time.' ... The first edition of Pound's work with any claim to completeness.... to lovers of Pound's work, Poems and Translations could not be more welcome."
— TLS
 
Overview  |  Note on the Texts  |  Reviews  |  Table of Contents
 

This volume contains poems and translations from 26 books published by Ezra Pound, as well as from the hand-bound "Hilda's Book," the "San Trovaso" notebook, the translations of the Provençal poet Arnaut Daniel meant for an edition that was never published, and the version of Sophocles' Elektra prepared with Rudd Fleming. It also includes a selection of 76 poems not collected by Pound, 19 of which were not published during his lifetime. In general, this volume prints the texts of the poems and translations as they first appeared in one of Pound's books. There is often substantial overlap between volumes because Pound included previously collected poems (sometimes in revised form) in many of his books; the present volume does not include a revised version of a poem unless it is revised enough to be regarded as a new work. For example, both "Vana" (40.1-20) and its enlarged version, "Praise of Ysolt" (83.1-84.28), are included here. Pound translated poems by Arnaut Daniel and Guido Cavalcanti at various points in his career, and this volume contains more than one translation of a poem only if the translations differ considerably from one another. Most of Pound's revisions are not of this order, however; some examples of the more usual kinds of revision are listed in the notes.

Because of the overlap among collections, in most instances this volume does not print the complete contents of Pound's books as they were first published. In all but two cases (The Spirit of Romance and Pavannes and Divagations) in which a selection has been made, the poems omitted are limited to those already collected by Pound and thus included elsewhere in the present volume. In The Sonnets and Ballate of Guido Cavalcanti, Guido Cavalcanti Rime, and The Great Digest & Unwobbling Pivot, texts in the original languages accompanied Pound's translations; with the exception of "The Canzone" from Guido Cavalcanti Rime (which is included here because Pound's arrangement of the original Italian text is a creative act in its own right), these foreign-language texts do not appear here. (Pound's poem "Dans un Omnibus de Londres" at 309.24-310.24 was written directly in French.) Supplementary material not written by Pound in Confucius: The Great Digest & Unwobbling Pivot, The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius, and Sophokles: Women of Trachis is omitted here as well; however, Ernest Fenollosa's essay on the Noh theater of Japan in 'Noh' or Accomplishment appears on pp. 388-405 because it was edited by Pound and contains his glosses on Fenollosa's observations. T. E. Hulme's poems, which appear as an appendix to Ripostes (1912), Umbra (1920), and the enlarged version of Personæ (1949), are printed at note 229.2.

In a few instances, the first book publication of Pound's poems and translations is best regarded as a work in progress, and the present volume prints a later version of these works. For example, Pound's translations of Japanese Noh theater were first collected in Certain Noble Plays of Japan in 1916, a book that was expanded into 'Noh' or Accomplishment, published the following year. Because Certain Noble Plays of Japan is an incomplete version of 'Noh' or Accomplishment, the later work is printed here. In the case of Lustra, four versions of the book were published in 1916 and 1917; in three of these versions, poems were removed from the contents because the publishers were concerned about legal action; the present volume prints the only complete edition of Lustra (see below).

Hilda's Book (1907). "Hilda's Book" is a hand-bound book of poems written between 1905 and 1907. The book is now in the Houghton Library at Harvard. An edition prepared by Michael King was published in End to Torment: A Memoir of Ezra Pound by H.D. (New York: New Directions, 1979). For several poems, King has incorporated Pound's holograph revisions of the typed poems in the book; because damage to the book has obscured part of "I strove a little book to make for her," the King edition has established the text of this poem with the aid of a manuscript in the Pound Archive at the Beinecke Library, Yale University. The present volume prints the text of "Hilda's Book" in End to Torment.

A Lume Spento (1908). At Pound's expense, A Lume Spento was published in an edition of 150 copies by the Venetian printer A. Antonini in July 1908. The present volume prints the texts of the poems from A Lume Spento as they appear in Collected Early Poems, edited by Michael King (New York: New Directions, 1976), which corrects errors by reference to manuscripts and proof sheets at the Beinecke Library and the Humanities Research Center of the University of Texas. Excluded from this section are four poems that appear in "Hilda's Book": "La Donzealla Beata," "Li Bel Chasteus," "Comraderie" (entitled "Era Venuta" in "Hilda's Book"), and "The Tree."

The San Trovaso Notebook (1908). Shortly after arranging for the publication of A Lume Spento, Pound began writing poems into a notebook he called "San Trovaso." Two of these poems were published in the Evening Standard and St. James's Gazette: "Histrion" (October 26, 1908) and "Nel Biancheggiar" (under the title "For Katherine Ruth Heyman," December 8, 1908). In the fall of 1908, he decided to publish at his own expense 15 of these poems in a volume entitled A Quinzaine for This Yule (see below); several more were not published until Pound's daughter Mary de Rachewiltz's selection of poems from the notebook appeared in A Lume Spento and Other Early Poems (1965), and the rest were included in the posthumous Collected Early Poems. In the present volume, the texts in the "San Trovaso Notebook" section are taken from the 1976 New Directions edition of Collected Early Poems.

A Quinzaine for This Yule (1908). In early December 1908, 100 copies of A Quinzaine for This Yule were printed by Pollock and Co. in London. Later that month, Elkin Mathews printed an additional 100 copies, correcting printer's errors in the Pollock and Co. edition. The present volume prints the text of A Quinzaine for This Yule from Collected Early Poems, which includes sections III and IV of "To La Contessa Bianzafior." Possibly because of space limitations, these sections were not included in the copies printed by Pollock and Co. and by Elkin Mathews.

Personae (1909). Pound's next collection, Personae, consisting of poems from A Lume Spento along with 17 new poems, was published by Elkin Mathews on April 16, 1909. The present volume prints the texts from Personae as they appear in Collected Early Poems. Omitted from this section are 16 poems from "Hilda's Book" and A Lume Spento: "Grace Before Song," "La Fraisne," "Cino," "Na Audiart," "Villonaud for This Yule," "A Villonaud: Ballad of the Gibbet," "Mesmerism," "Fifine Answers," "In Tempore Senectutis," "Famam Librosque Cano," "Scriptor Ignotus," "Comraderie" ("Era Venuta"), "Masks," "Ballad for Gloom," "For E. McC.," "Motif" (entitled "Search" in Personae).

Exultations (1909). Exultations was published by Elkin Mathews on October 25, 1909. The book contained 27 poems, including five from A Lume Spento ("Plotinus"; "On His Own Face in a Glass"; "The Cry of the Eyes," now called "The Eyes"; "To the Dawn: Defiance," now called "Defiance"; "Song") and six from A Quinzaine for This Yule ("Night Litany"; "Sandalaphon"; "Greek Epigram"; "Christophori Columbi Tumulus"; "Histrion"; "Nel Biancheggiar"). Four of the poems had appeared in the English Review in 1909: "Sestina: Altaforte" (June), "Ballad of the Goodly Fere" (October), "Nils Lykke" (October), and "Portrait" (October, under the title "Un Retrato"). In the present volume, the texts of the poems from Exultations are taken from Collected Early Poems. Poems published in A Lume Spento and A Quinzaine for This Yule are not included in this section.

The Spirit of Romance (1910). Pound's collection of essays, The Spirit of Romance, contains more than fifty translations of works or fragments of works in Latin, Provençal, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. The translations in this section are drawn from those that Pound collected in the enlarged edition of Translations (New York: New Directions, 1964) and, for "Sequaire," in Confucius to Cummings, an anthology Pound edited with Marcella Spann (New York: New Directions, 1964). These translations were not revised for these volumes, though they sometimes include titles and accompanying source information that do not appear in the 1910 edition of The Spirit of Romance. The present volume prints the texts of "Inscriptio Fontis," "A War Song," "The Lark," "'Vedut' Ho la Lucente Stella Diana,'" and "Cantico del Sole" from the 1964 New Directions edition of Translations; "Sequaire" is taken from the 1964 New Directions edition of Confucius to Cummings.

Canzoni (1911). Canzoni began to take shape not long after Pound finished working on The Spirit of Romance and his translations of Guido Cavalcanti. Most of the poems were in the book composed in 1910 and 1911. After receiving proofs for Canzoni from Elkin Mathews in May 1911, Pound decided to withdraw three poems: "Leviora," "To Hulme (T. E.) and Fitzgerald (A Certain)," and "Redondillas, or Something of That Sort." Canzoni was published by Elkin Mathews in London in July 1911. Six of the poems had been published in periodicals: "Canzon: The Yearly Slain," "Canzon: The Spear," "Canzon" (published under the heading "Three Poems" in English Review, January 1910), "Canzon: Of Incense" (English Review, April 1910), "A Prologue" (entitled "Christmas Prologue," Sunday School Times, December 3, 1910), and "The Fault of It" (Forum, July 1911). In addition, 14 poems were included in Provença (Boston: Small, Maynard and Co., 1910), the first American edition of Pound's poetry, which was made up of selections from his four English collections as well as a section entitled "Canzoniere: Studies in Form." The following poems from Canzoni were published in this section: "Octave," "Sonnet in Tenzone," "Sonnet," "Canzon: The Yearly Slain," "Canzon: The Spear," "Canzon," "Canzon: Of Incense," "Canzone: Of Angels," "Sonnet: Chi È Questa?" "Ballata, Fragment" (entitled "Of Grace"), "Canzon," "To Our Lady of Vicarious Atonement," and "To Guido Cavalcanti" (as "Epilogue: To Guido Cavalcanti'). In the present volume, the texts of the poems from Canzoni, including those withdrawn from the 1911 Elkin Mathews edition, are taken from Collected Early Poems. Two poems are omitted from this section: "The Tree" appears in "Hilda's Book" and "Threnos" is included with the poems from A Lume Spento.

The Sonnets and Ballate of Guido Cavalcanti (1912). In 1929 Pound recalled that he had translated most of the poems in The Sonnets and Ballate of Guido Cavalcanti in the summer and autumn of 1910. Although the book's introduction is dated November 15, 1910, Pound claimed to have completed it in the spring of 1911. On April 27, 1912, the book was published in Boston by Small, Maynard and Company; an English edition was brought out by Stephen Swift and Company in May 1912. Although nearly identical, these editions vary in several passages. The texts of the translations in the present volume are taken from Pound's Cavalcanti, edited by David Anderson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). In preparing his edition, Anderson consulted the Small, Maynard and Stephen Swift editions as well as manuscripts and copies of both 1912 editions with corrections in Pound's hand. The Italian texts of Cavalcanti's poems, which accompanied the translations en face in the 1912 editions, are not included here.

Ripostes (1912). Pound submitted a typescript of Ripostes to the London publisher Stephen Swift and Co. in February 1912, and the book was published in October of that year. Using sheets from the Swift and Co. edition, the Boston firm of Small, Maynard and Co. published Ripostes in America in July 1913. Of its 25 poems, only "Salve Pontifex" (a version of "Salve O Pontifex" from A Lume Spento) had appeared in one of Pound's previous collections. Eight had been published in periodicals: "Silet" (Smart Set, May 1912), "Apparuit" (English Review, June 1912), "The Seafarer" (New Age, November 30, 1911), "Echoes" (North American Review, January 1912), "An Immorality" (Poetry Review, February 1912), "Dieu! Qu'Il La Fait" (Poetry Review, February 1912), "Δωρι α" (Poetry Review, February 1912), "The Return" (English Review, June 1912). With the exception of "Salve Ponitfex," which is included (as "Salve O Pontifex") in A Lume Spento, the present volume prints the texts of the poems from Ripostes as they appear in Collected Early Poems.

Cathay (1915). In 1913 Pound was introduced to Mary Fenollosa, the widow of Ernest Fenollosa, a professor who had taught political economy and philosophy at Tokyo University before becoming Curator of Oriental Art at the Boston Museum. With the aid of Japanese assistants, Fenollosa had worked on translations from Chinese and Japanese literature, some of which were published posthumously in Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art (1912). After Mary Fenollosa gave him her husband's notebooks and other manuscripts in the fall of 1913, Pound began to work on a series of translations based on Fenollosa's research. Pound's versions of Noh plays were published in Certain Noble Plays of Japan (1916) and then in an expanded edition as 'Noh' or Accomplishment (1917); his adaptations of Chinese poetry were collected, with his Anglo-Saxon translation "The Seafarer," in Cathay, published by Elkin Mathews in London on April 6, 1915. "Exile's Letter" had appeared in Poetry in March 1915. In the present volume, with the exception of "The Seafarer" (which appears with the poems from Ripostes), the poems published in Cathay printed here are taken from the 1915 Elkin Mathews edition.

Lustra (1916-17). Pound gathered poems composed between 1913 and 1916 as well as numerous poems from his earlier books and submitted the manuscript of Lustra to Elkin Mathews in the spring of 1916. After the book was set, the printers and publishers asked that several poems be removed because they feared legal action, presumably on grounds of indecency. Elkin Mathews released a privately printed edition of 200 copies of Lustra in September 1916, with four poems from the original typescript omitted ("The Temperaments," "Ancient Music," "The Lake Isle," and "Pagani's, November 8"). The version published the following month by Mathews omitted not only these poems but nine others as well: "Salutation the Second," "Commission," "The New Cake of Soap," "Meditatio," "Phyllidula," "The Patterns," "The Seeing Eye," and "'Ιμερρω." The title of the poem "Coitus" was changed to "Pervigilium."

When Lustra was published in the United States in October 1917 by Alfred A. Knopf, all but one of the poems suppressed in England, "The Temperaments," were restored. In addition, "Three Cantos of a Poem of Some Length" was included in the collection. A privately printed version of this edition, limited to 60 copies and with "The Temperaments" added, was made available in New York that same month. The present volume prints the complete text of Lustra as it appears in this privately printed version.

Lustra collected several poems from Pound's previous books. The complete contents of Cathay were included, as well as the following poems: "In Durance," "Piere Vidal Old," "Prayer for His Lady's Life" "'Blandula, Tenulla, Vagula,'" "Erat Hora," "The Sea of Glass," "Her Monument, the Image Cut Thereon," "Housman's Message to Mankind" ("Song in the Manner of Housman"), "Translations from Heine" ("Translations and Adaptations from Heine") "Und Drang," an untitled version of "Silet," "In Exitum Cuiusdam," "Apparuit," "The Tomb at Akr /aar," "Portrait d'une Femme," "New York," "A Girl," "'Phasellus Ille,'" "An Object," "Quies," "The Cloak," "An Immorality," "Dieu! Qu'Il la Fait," "Salve Pontifex," "Δωρια," "The Needle," "Sub Mare," "Plunge," "A Virginal," "Pan Is Dead," "The Picture," "Of Jacopo del Sellaio," and "The Return." These poems do not appear in the Lustra section of the present volume but are included with the books in which they were first collected.

Of the poems first collected in Lustra, the following had been published in periodicals: "Tenzone" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "The Condolence" (Poetry, April 1913); "The Garret" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "The Garden" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "Ortus" (Poetry, April 1913); "Salutation" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "Salutation the Second" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "The Spring" (Poetry, March 1915); "Albâtre" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914, and Smart Set, August 1915); "Causa" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Commission" (Poetry, April 1913); "A Pact" (Poetry, April 1913); "Surgit Fama" (Poetry, November 1913, with the subtitle "Fragment from an Unwritable Play," and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "Dance Figure" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "April" (Poetry, November 1913, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "Gentildonna" (Poetry, November 1913, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "The Rest" (Poetry, November 1913, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "Les Millwin" (Poetry, November 1913, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "Further Instructions" (Poetry, November 1913, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "A Song of the Degrees" (I-III in Poetry, November 1913 as "Xenia," III-V, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913, as "Convictions"); "Ité" (Poetry, November 1913 as "Xenia," VI); "Dum Capitolium Scandet" (Poetry, November 1913, as "Xenia," VII); "To Καλóυ" (Poetry, August 1914); "The Study in Aesthetics" (Poetry, August 1914); "The Bellaires" (Poetry, August 1914); "The New Cake of Soap" (BLAST, June 20, 1914); "Salvationists" (Poetry, August 1914); "Epitaph" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Arides" (Smart Set, December 1913); "The Bath Tub" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Amitiés" (Poetry, August 1914); "Meditatio" (BLAST, June 20, 1914); "To Dives" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Ladies" (Poetry, August 1914); "Phyllidula" (Others, November 1915); "The Patterns" (Others, November 1915); "Coda" (Others, November 1915); "The Seeing Eye" (Poetry, August 1914); "Ancora" (Poetry, November 1913, and New Freewoman, December 1, 1913); "Dompna Pois de Me No'us Cal" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "The Coming of War: Actaeon" (Poetry, March 1915); "Fan-piece, for Her Imperial Lord" (Poetry and Drama, June 1914); "Ts'ai Chih" (Poetry and Drama, June 1914); "In a Station of the Metro" (Poetry, April 1913, and New Freewoman, August 15, 1913); "Alba" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Heather" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "The Faun" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "Coitus" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "The Encounter" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Tempora" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "Black Slippers: Bellotti" (Smart Set, October 1915, as "Her Little Black Slippers"); "Society" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "Image from d'Orleans" (Poetry, March 1915); "Ione, Dead the Long Year" (Poetry and Drama, December 1914, as "Dead Iönè"); "'Ιμερρω" (Poetry, September 1916, as "O Atthis"); "Shop Girl" (Others, November 1915); "To Formianus' Young Lady Friend" (Poetry and Drama, March 1914); "Tame Cat" (Smart Set, December 1913); "L'Art, 1910" (BLAST, June 20, 1914, as "L'Art"); "Simulacra" (Smart Set, December 1913); "Women Before a Shop" (BLAST, June 20, 1914); "The Social Order" (BLAST, July 1915); "The Tea Shop" (Others, November 1915); "Ancient Music" (BLAST, July 1915); "The Lake Isle" (Poetry, September 1916); "Epitaphs" (BLAST, June 20, 1914); "Our Contemporaries" (BLAST, July 1915); "Ancient Wisdom, Rather Cosmic" (BLAST, July 1915); "The Three Poets" (Poetry, September 1916); "The Gipsy" (Poetry, March 1915); "The Game of Chess" (as "Dogmatic Statement Concerning the Game of Chess" in Poetry, March 1915, and BLAST, July 1915); "Provincia Deserta" (Poetry, March 1915); "Sennin Poem by Kakuhaku" (New Age, June 22, 1916); "A Ballad of the Mulberry Road" (New Age, June 22, 1916); "Old Idea of Choan by Rosoriu" (New Age, June 22, 1916); "To-Em-Mai's 'The Unmoving Cloud'" (New Age, June 22, 1916, and Others, July 1916); "Near Perigord" (Poetry, December 1915); "Villanelle: The Psychological Hour" (Poetry, December 1915); "Dans un Omnibus de Londres" (Poetry, September 1916); "Pagani's, November 8" (Poetry, September 1916); "Homage to Quintus Septimius Florentis Christianus" (Poetry, September 1916); "Fish and the Shadow" (Poetry, September 1916); "Impressions of François-Marie Arouet (de Voltaire)" (Poetry, September 1916); "Three Cantos of a Poem of Some Length" (Poetry, July 1917 and August 1917, as "Three Cantos").

'Noh' or Accomplishment (1917). Pound began publishing his Noh translations based on Fenollosa's notebooks in May 1914, when "Nishikigi" appeared in Poetry. "Kinuta" and "Hagoromo," along with quotations from other plays, were published in Quarterly Review, October 1914, and a shorter and somewhat different version of Parts I and II of 'Noh' or Accomplishment appeared in Drama, May 1915. "Awoi No Uye" appeared in Quarterly Notebook, June 1916, and "Kakitsubata" was published (as "Kakitsuhata") in Drama, August 1916. Pound gathered the plays "Nishikigi," "Hagoromo," "Kumasaka," and "Kagekiyo" in Certain Noble Plays of Japan (Churchtown: The Cuala Press, 1916), which was then enlarged for publication in England (by Macmillan and Co.) and America (by Alfred A. Knopf ) in 1917 as 'Noh' or Accomplishment, these publications using the same sheets. The text printed here is from the 1917 Knopf publication of 'Noh' or Accomplishment.

Arnaut Daniel (1917). As early as 1911, Pound had hoped to publish a book of translations of the Provençal troubadour Arnaut Daniel (see note 479.1). Late in 1917, the Clerk's Press in Cleveland agreed to print a book of Pound's Arnaut Daniel translations in a private edition of 80 copies. On December 14, 1917, Pound wrote to John Quinn that he had been "working ten and twelve hours a day on my Arnaut Daniel. . . . I have redone about half of it, and shall wholly rewrite the rest. Thank God it wasn't printed in its first form." He completed his revisions of the translations shortly thereafter. When Pound's typescript was sent to the Clerk's Press it disappeared in transit and the book was never published. Typescript copies of these translations with Pound's holograph corrections are part of the collection of Pound's papers in the Beinecke Library at Yale. Based on these typescripts, an edition of the Arnaut Daniel translations intended for the Clerk's Press volume was prepared by Charlotte Ward in Pound's Translations of Arnaut Daniel (New York: Garland Press, 1991). Ward's edition provides the texts for the Arnaut Daniel section of the present volume.

Many of Pound's earlier translations of Arnaut Daniel's verse, quite different from the "redone" versions completed in 1917, had appeared in New Age in 1911 or 1912 or in the musical score Hesternae Rosae (1912). Some of these were collected in The Translations (1953; enlarged version, 1964). As for the translations intended for the Clerk's Press edition, "Doutz Brais e Critz" was published under the title "Glamour and Indigo" in Little Review (November 1918), and complete or fragmentary versions of the following translations were included in Pound's essay "Arnaut Daniel," published in Instigations (1920): "Can Chai la Fueilla," "Lancan Son Passat li Guire," "Lanquan Vei Fueill' e Flors e Frug," "Autet e Bas Entrels Prims Fuoills," "L'Aura Amara," "En Breu Brisaral Temps Braus," "Doutz Brais e Critz," "Ans Quel Cim Reston de Branchas," "Sim Fos Amors de Joi Donar Tant Larga." One of Pound's translations meant for the Clerk's Press edition ("I only, and who elrische pain support") was incorporated into the sequence "Langue d'Oc" published in Quia Pauper Amavi, where it appears under the title "Canzon." For Umbra: The Early Poems of Ezra Pound (1920), Pound included "L'Aura Amara," "Autet e Bas Entrels Prims Fuoills," "Doutz Brais e Critz," "Lancan Son Passat li Guire," and "Ans Quel Cim Reston de Branchas," grouping them under the title "Five Canzoni of Arnaut Daniel."

Pavannes and Divisions (1918). In Pavannes and Divisions, a volume consisting mostly of essays, Pound collected "L'Homme Moyen Sensuel," which had appeared in Little Review (September 1917), and "Pierrots," a translation that had appeared in Little Review (May 1917) under the pseudonym John Hall. Pavannes and Divisions was published by Alfred A. Knopf in New York in June 1918. There was no English edition of the book. The texts of "L'Homme Moyen Sensuel" and "Pierrots" printed here are taken from the 1918 Alfred A. Knopf edition of Pavannes and Divisions.

Quia Pauper Amavi (1919). The Egoist Press published Quia Pauper Amavi in London in October 1919. There was no subsequent edition of the book. "Langue d'Oc" had appeared (as "Homage à la langue d'Oc") in Little Review in May 1918 and in New Age on June 27, 1918. "Moeurs Contemporaines" also had appeared in Little Review in May 1918. Sections I, II, II, and VI of "Homage to Sextus Propertius" had been published (as "Poems from the Propertius Series') in Poetry, March 1919. Quia Pauper Amavi also contains "Three Cantos," which is not included in this section because it is a version of "Three Cantos of a Poem of Some Length" in Lustra (pp. 318-330). The present volume prints the texts of the 1919 Egoist Press edition of Quia Pauper Amavi for the poems contained in this section. At line 529.12, Pound changed "Wherefore" of the published text to "Wherefrom" by hand in numerous copies of the book; the corrected reading is printed here.

Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1919). Hugh Selwyn Mauberley was first published in an edition of 200 copies by the Egoist Press in June 1919. This book was the first appearance of the poem in print and provides the text printed here. There was no American edition of Hugh Selwyn Mauberley as a separate publication, though the first six sections of Part I appeared in The Dial in September 1920, and a lightly revised version of the entire poem was included in Poems 1918-1921 (New York: Boni & Liveright, 1921), as well as in subsequent collections such as Personae (1926) and Diptych Rome—London (1958).

Umbra (1920). Umbra: The Early Poems of Ezra Pound is a collection mostly of poems published before 1913, along with selections from his Guido Cavalcanti and Arnaut Daniel translations (and the "Complete Poetical Works of T. E. Hulme"). He also included five previously uncollected poems. "The Alchemist," dated 1912 in the table of contents of Umbra, was first published in this volume. "Oboes" had appeared in Poetry Review in February 1912 (where it contained a third section entitled "An Immorality," which had been collected as a separate poem in Ripostes and which was omitted from the Umbra version of "Oboes"). Two poems from Little Review (November 1918), "Cantus Planus" and "Phanopoeia," also appeared in Umbra. "Poem: Abbreviated from the Conversation of Mr. T. E. H.," written by Pound, was added to the "Complete Poetical Works of T. E. Hulme," which was printed as an appendix to the volume. Umbra was published by Elkin Mathews in London in June 1920. There was no subsequent edition. The present volume takes the texts of the five uncollected poems from the 1920 Elkin Mathews edition of Umbra.

The previously collected poems in Umbra are "Grace Before Song"; "La Fraisne"; "Cino"; "Na Audiart"; "Villonaud for This Yule"; "A Villonaud: Ballad of the Gibbet"; "Mesmserism"; "Famam Librosque Cano"; "Praise of Ysolt"; "For E. McC."; "At the Heart o' Me"; "The White Stag"; "In Durance"; "Marvoil"; "And Thus in Nineveh"; "Guido Invites You Thus"; "Night Litany"; "Sestina: Altaforte"; "Piere Vidal Old"; "Ballad of the Goodly Fere"; "Laudentes Decem Pulchritudinis Johannae Templi"; "Aux Belles de Londres"; "Francesca"; "Prayer" ("Greek Epigram" in Exultations); "The Tree"; "On His Own Face in a Glass"; "The Eyes" ("The Cry of the Eyes" in A Lume Spento); "Nils Lykke"; "Planh for the Young English King"; "Alba" ("Alba Innominata" in Exultations); "Planh"; "Au Jardin"; "Silet"; "In Exitum Cuiusdam"; "The Tomb at Akr /aar"; "Portrait d'Une Femme"; "N.Y."; "A Girl"; "'Phaseus Ille'"; "An Object"; "Quies"; "The Seafarer"; "The Cloak"; "Δωρ ια"; "Apparuit"; "The Needle"; "Sub Mare"; "Plunge"; "A Virginal"; "Pan Is Dead"; "An Immorality"; "Dieu! Qu'Il la Fait"; "The Picture"; "Of Jacopo del Sallaio"; "The Return"; "Effects of Music Upon a Company of People"; Sonnets I, II, III, V, VI, VII, VIII, XV, XXVI, XXXIII of Guido Cavalcanti, as well as "Madrigal" and Ballate I, II, III, V, VI, VII, XII, XIII, XIV; from Pound's Arnaut Daniel translations, "L'Aura Amara," "Autet e Bas Entrel Prims Fuoills," "Doutz Brais e Critz" (entitled "Glamour and Indigo"), "Lancan Son Passat li Guire," and "Ans Quel Cim Reston de Branchas."

Personæ (1926). Although a note in Personæ: The Collected Poems of Ezra Pound claimed that it was an "edition to date of all Ezra Pound's poems except the unfinished 'Cantos,'" the book was in fact a selection that omitted numerous poems. It contained seven poems that had not been included in Pound's previous poetry collections. Six of these had been published in the first issue of BLAST, June 20, 1914 (some of which were revised for Personæ): "Salutation the Third," "Monumentum Aere, Etc.," "Come My Cantilations," "Before Sleep," "Post Mortem Conspectu" (as "His Vision of a Certain Lady Post Mortem"), and "Fratres Minores." These were printed under the heading "Poems from BLAST (1914)." Personæ also collected "Cantico del Sole" as a separate poem; it had been published in Little Review, March 1918, and appeared as part of the essay "The Classics 'Escape,'" in Instigations (1920). The texts of the seven poems in this section are taken from the first edition of Personæ, published by Boni & Liveright on December 22, 1926. An enlarged version of Personæ was published in 1949 by New Directions (see below).

In addition to these seven poems, Personæ contains poems previously published in book form, many of which were revised for this collection: "The Tree," "Threnos," "La Fraisne," "Cino," "Na Audiart," "Villonaud for This Yule," "A Villonaud: Ballad of the Gibbet," "Mesmerism," "Famam Librosque Cano," "Praise of Ysolt," "De Aegypto," "For E. McC.," "In Durance," "Marvoil," "And Thus in Nineveh," "The White Stag," "Guido Invites You Thus," "Night Litany," "Sestina: Altaforte," "Piere Vidal Old," "Paracelsus in Excelsis," "Ballad of the Goodly Fere," "On His Own Face in a Glass," "The Eyes," "Francesca," "Planh for the Young English King," "Ballatetta," "Prayer for His Lady's Life," "Speech for Psyche in the Golden Book of Apuleius," "'Blandula, Tenulla, Vagula,'" "Erat Hora," "Rome," "Her Monument, the Image Cut Thereon," "Satiemus," "Mr Housman's Message" ("Song in the Manner of Housman"), "Translations and Adaptations from Heine" ("Translations from Heine" and "Oboes," II), "The House of Splendour" ("Und Drang," VII), "The Flame" ("Und Drang," VIII), "Horıı Beatıı Inscriptio" ("Und Drang," IX), "The Altar" ("Und Drang," X), "Au Salon" ("Und Drang," XI), "Au Jardin" ("Und Drang," XII), "Silet," "In Exitum Cuiusdam," "The Tomb at Akr /aar," "Portrait d'une Femme," "N.Y.," "A Girl," "'Phasellus Ille,'" "An Object," "Quies," "The Cloak," "Δωρ ια," "Apparuit," "The Needle," "Sub Mare," "The Plunge," "A Virginal," "Pan Is Dead," "Dieu! Qu'Il la Fait," "The Picture," "Of Jacopo del Sellaio," "The Return," and "The Alchemist." It also included all the poems in the 1915 edition of Cathay, the poems (excepting "Preference" and "Three Cantos of a Poem of Some Length") first collected in Lustra (see above), "Langue d'Oc," "Moeurs Contemporaines," "Homage to Sextus Propertius," "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley," "The Alchemist," "Phanopoeia," and "Cantus Planus."

Guido Cavalcanti Rime (1932). The poems from this book printed here—translations from the 1920s as well as "The Canzone," Pound's Italian text of Cavalcanti's "Donna mi prega"—were first published in book form in Guido Cavalcanti Rime (Genoa: Edizioni Marsano, 1932). Pound's English versions of Cavalcanti sonnets in this section—Sonnets VII, XIII, XIV, XVI, and XVII—are new renderings of works first translated in The Sonnets and Ballate of Guido Cavalcanti (1912). A version of "Donna mi prega" and "The Canzone" had appeared in The Dial in July 1928. Guido Cavalcanti Rime was printed at Pound's expense after his edition of Cavalcanti's works scheduled to be published by the Aquila Press was canceled due to the firm's bankruptcy (see note 573.2). Pages set for the Aquila Press edition in 1929, including those containing the poems in this section, were used for printing Guido Cavalcanti Rime. There was no subsequent edition of the book. The texts printed in this section of the present volume are taken from the 1932 Edizioni Marsano edition of Guido Cavalcanti Rime.

Alfred Venison's Poems (1935). The poems in Alfred Venison's Poems were first published in the New English Weekly between February and November 1934. They were then collected as part of Stanley Nott's "Pamphlets on the New Economics" series in April 1935. Pound included them without revision in Appendix II of the enlarged edition of Personæ, published by New Directions in 1949. The 1935 Stanley Nott edition of Alfred Venison's Poems provides the text printed here.

Guide to Kulchur (1938). "The Lioness Warns Her Cubs" and "Praise Song of the Buck Hare," folk songs from Sudan and Siberia (respectively), were translated from German sources and published in Guide to Kulchur (London: Faber & Faber, 1938), which provides the text printed here. Under the title Culture, the book was published in America by New Directions in 1938 using sheets from the Faber edition.

Personæ (1949). An expanded edition of Pound's 1926 collection Personæ was published by New Directions in 1949. It included the full contents of the 1926 edition, as well as two appendices. The first contains "The Complete Poetical Works of T. E. Hulme"; "Pierrots" and "L'Homme Moyen Sensuel" from Pavannes and Divisions; a version of "Donna mi prega" (see Guido Cavalcanti Rime): and three previously uncollected poems: "To Whistler, American," "Middle-Aged" (both which were first published in Poetry, October, 1912), and "Abu Salammamm—A Song of Empire" (first published in Poetry, August 1914). A second appendix contains the complete contents of the 1935 Stanley Nott edition of Alfred Venison's Poems, along with "M. Pom- POM," first published in Townsman, January 1938. The present volume prints the texts of "To Whistler, American," "Middle-Aged," "Abu Salammamm—A Song of Empire," and "M. Pom-POM" from the 1949 New Directions edition of Personæ.

Confucius: The Great Digest & Unwobbling Pivot (1951). Pound's first version of "The Great Digest," one of the "Four Books" of the Confucian canon that he initially read in French translation (see note 615.1-2), was published by the University of Washington Bookstore in 1928 as Ta Hio: The Great Learning. Pound continued to study and translate Confucian works over the following decades, benefiting from increased familiarity with Chinese as well as existing translations. He published an Italian version of "The Great Digest" in two books in 1942 and 1944, as well as an Italian translanote tion of Chung Yung, another canonical Confucian book, under the title Ciung Iung: L'Asse che non vacilla (1945). Chung Yung then appeared in English translation as "The Unwobbling Pivot," accompanying "The Great Digest" in an issue of James Laughlin's magazine Pharos (Winter 1947) devoted exclusively to these translations. These two works were then collected in Confucius: The Great Digest & Unwobbling Pivot, published by New Directions in 1951, which is the text printed here. Because the present volume does not reproduce the Chinese text on the pages opposite the English translation as in the New Directions edition, it does not reproduce the breaks in lineation and pagination that were meant solely to align the English with the Chinese text.

The Confucian Analects (1951). Pound first published excerpts from Confucius' Analects in English translation in the pamphlet Confucius: Digest of the Analects, published in an edition of 245 copies by Giovanni Scheiwiller in Milan in 1937. With very slight revisions, these excerpts became the first chapter of Pound's Guide to Kulchur (1938). Pound's translation of the complete work appeared in the Hudson Review (Spring-Summer 1950); it was lightly revised and published as The Confucian Analects in 1951 (New York: Square $ Series, 1951). A subsequent undated version of the Square $ Edition (published in Washington, D.C., with "Dollar" instead of "$" on the title page) added the two brief introductory sections, "Procedure" and "Brief Concordance" (most likely written in 1954), but made no other changes to the text of The Confucian Analects; these sections were also included in the book when it was published in England in 1956 by Peter Owen Limited. The text of The Confucian Analects was subsequently reprinted in Confucius: The Great Digest; The Unwobbling Pivot; The Analects (New York: New Directions, 1969). The undated Square Dollar edition of The Confucian Analects contains the text printed here.

The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius (1954). Pound's first translation from the Shih Ching (Book of Poems or Confucian Odes), the anthology of 305 poems whose compilation is attributed to Confucius, was "Song of the Bowman of Shu" in Cathay (1915), based on a version in Fenellosa's notebooks. Around 1920, he acquired a Latin edition of some of the Confucian Odes; English versions of poems from the Shih Ching were intended for the aborted Aquila Press edition of translations and prose planned in the late 1920s (see note 573.2). A partial translation of Poem 108 (809.17-810.5), based on a French source, was included in Guide to Kulchur (1938). In the 1940s Pound studied the commentary and translations of the Shih Ching by James Legge and the Swedish scholar Bernhard Karlgren, and during the first years of his confine- ment at St. Elizabeths he began planning an ambitious "Scholar's Edition" of the Confucian Odes, much of which was never realized (see note 753.1-2). The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius was published by Harvard University Press on September 10, 1954. Using unbound sheets of the Harvard University Press edition, Faber & Faber published the book in England the following year. New Directions, reproducing the Harvard University Press edition, brought the book out under the title The Confucian Odes in 1959. The present volume prints the text of the 1954 Harvard University Press edition of The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius; it does not include the introduction by Achilles Fang, which is part of the Harvard edition as well as the subsequent Faber & Faber and New Directions volumes.

Elektra (translated ca. 1950). Elektra, Pound and Rudd Fleming's version of Sophocles' play translated while Pound was hospitalized at St. Elizabeths (1946-1958), was not published during Pound's lifetime. Based on the two existing typescripts of the play in the Princeton University Library, two editions of Elektra were prepared in the 1980s: Carey Perloff's acting edition, used for the first performance of Elektra in 1987 and published by New Directions in 1990 as Elektra: A Version by Ezra Pound and Rudd Fleming; and Richard Reid's edition, Elektra: A Play by Ezra Pound and Rudd Fleming (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), an edition guided by what Reid calls "faithfulness to the historical documents" (some of Perloff's decisions, as befits an "acting edition," are designed for stage adaptation). The text of the 1989 Princeton University Press edition of Elektra is printed here.

Sophokles: Women of Trachis (1956). Pound's version of Sophocles' Women of Trachis, which like Elektra was translated while he was confined at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D.C., was first published in Hudson Review, Winter 1954. Nearly three years later, the London publisher Neville Spearman published Sophokles: Women of Trachis: A Version by Ezra Pound. Along with Pound's translation, this edition contained a foreword by Dennis Goacher, an "Editorial Declaration" by Goacher and Peter Whigham, and two essays: S. V. Jankowski's "Ezra Pound's Translation of Sophokles" and Ricardo M. degli Uberti's "Why Pound Liked Italy." The American publication of Women of Trachis (New York: New Directions, 1957) was created from reproduction proofs provided by Neville Spearman. The present volume prints the text of the 1956 Neville Spearman edition of Pound's Women of Trachis but does not include the ancillary material written by Goacher, Whigham, Jankowski, and Uberti.

Pavannes and Divagations (1958). Pavannes and Divagations (New York: New Directions, 1958) is an expanded version of Pavannes and Divisions, published in 1918. Among the poems first collected in it are the following: "Words for Roundel in Double Canon," first published in An "Objectivists" Anthology (New York: To Press, 1932); "Guides to the Montanari Poems," first published anonymously in Imagi in 1951; and the translation (with accompanying drawing) of the French Jaime d'Angulo poem beginning "Werewolf in selvage I saw," which had appeared in the December 1950 issue of the Calcutta periodical Kavita as well as in Imagi in 1951. In a section called "Frivolities," Pavannes and Divagations also included the following poems: "The Sneeze," "Mr Housman's Message" ("Song in the Manner of Housman"), "The New Cake of Soap," "Ancient Music," "Our Contemporaries," "M. Pom-POM," "Abu Salammamm—A Song of Empire," "In 1914 There was Mertons," and "'Neath Ben Bulben's Buttocks Lies." The texts of "Words for Roundel in Double Canon," "Guides to the Montanari Poems," and "Werewolf in selvage I saw" in the present volume are taken from the 1958 New Directions edition of Pavannes and Divagations.

Translations (1964). Pound chose the contents of a selection of his translations while at St. Elizabeths in Washington, and the book was published under the title The Translations of Ezra Pound in July 1953 by Faber & Faber. The book was issued the following month in the United States by New Directions using sheets from the Faber & Faber edition. The collection included works appearing elsewhere in the present volume: the 1912 versions of his Guido Cavalcanti translations, selections from his Arnaut Daniel poems from 1917, translations after Chinese poems from Cathay and the "Cathay" section of Lustra, the Anglo-Saxon "The Seafarer," and (in a section called "Miscellaneous Poems") the following translations: "To Formianus' Young Lady Friend," "Her Monument, the Image Cut Thereon," "Rome," "Dieu! Qu'Il la Fait," and "Pierrots." It also contained the prose translation (not included in the present volume) of Remy de Gourmont's "Dust for Sparrows." An enlarged printing, entitled Translations, was published by New Directions on February 18, 1964. This printing reproduced The Translations of Ezra Pound and added poems to the "Miscellaneous Poems" section. Most of these translations had been published in periodicals and anthologies; they were not revised for inclusion in Translations, although they sometimes include titles and accompanying source information that do not appear in the earlier publications. The poems added to the enlarged Translations include five translations from The Spirit of Romance (see above), Cercalmon's "Descant on a Theme" (part III of "Langue d'Oc" from Quia Pauper Amavi), and the following poems printed in this section (with the sources of first publication): "Chansson Doil" (New Age, December 28, 1911); "For Right of Audience" (New Age, December 28, 1911); "Canzon: Of the Trades and Love" (New Age, January 18, 1912); "Rica Conquesta" (New Age, February 22, 1912); "Certain Poems of Kabir" (Modern Review, June 1913); "Strophes" (Dial, November 1921); "Sonnet to Guido Cavalcanti" (Dial, July 1929, in the essay "Guido's Relations"); the five poems "Cabaret Vert," "Comedy in Three Caresses," "Anadyomene," "Lice-Hunters," and "Rus" (Edge, October 1956, reprinted in the pamphlet Rimbaud, published in 1957 by Vanni Scheiwiller in Milan); "Catullus: XXVI" (Edge, May 1957); "Conversations in Courtship" (Wort und Wahrheit, January 1960); the four poems "L'Ultima Ora," "Ask not ungainly," "By the flat cup," "This monument will outlast" (Agenda, September 1964). "Roma," "Catullus: LXXXV," and "Air: Sentir Avec Ardeur," all dated 1963 or 1964 in the table of contents of Translations, were published for the first time there. The texts of the 21 poems in this section are taken from the 1964 New Directions publication of Translations.

Uncollected Poems and Translations. The texts in the "Uncollected Poems and Translations" section are taken from their first publications, except for poems published in the following editions, abbreviated as follows:

CEP Collected Early Poems of Ezra Pound, edited by Michael King (New York: New Directions, 1976).
FB Forked Branches, edited by Charlotte Ward (Iowa City: Windhover Press, 1985)
P Personae, edited by Lea Baechler and A. Walton Litz (New York: New Directions, 1990).
PC Pound's Cavalcanti, edited by David Anderson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

Note: the poems in FB and PC were not published during Pound's lifetime.

  • Ezra on the Strike. CEP. First published in Jenkintown Times- Chronicle, Jenkintown, Pa., November 8, 1902.
  • Amor de Lonh. FB.
  • A Dawn Song. CEP. First published in Munsey's Magazine, December 1906.
  • To the Raphaelite Latinists. CEP. First published in Book News Monthly, January 1908.
  • In Epitaphium. CEP. First published in The Book of the Poets' Club (London: The Poets' Club, 1909).
  • Clair de Lune; Lied Maritime. Transcribed from the program ("Book of Words") for a vocal and piano recital by Florence Schmidt and Elsie Hall at Bechstein Hall, London, Tuesday, March 1, 1910.
  • Thersites: On the Surviving Zeus. CEP. First published in The English Review, April 1910.
  • The Fault of It. CEP. First published in Forum, July 1911.
  • L'Invitation. CEP. First published in Poetry Review, February 1912.
  • Selection from Collection Yvette Guilbert. Transcriptions from the musical score Selection from Collection Yvette Guilbert (London: Augener Ltd., 1912).
  • Epilogue. CEP. First published in Collected Shorter Poems (London: Faber & Faber, 1968), which notes that it was "composed 1912."
  • from Hesternae Rosae. Transcriptions from the musical score Hesternae Rosae (London: Augener Ltd., 1913).
  • Pax Saturni. CEP. First published in Poetry, April 1913.
  • The Choice; Xenia ("The Street in Soho"). CEP. Both were first published in Poetry, November 1913.
  • Xenia ("Come let us play with our own toys"). CEP. First published in Smart Set, December 1913.
  • Ikon. P. First published in Cerebralist, December 1913.
  • Legend of the Chippewa Spring and Minnehaha, the Indian Maiden. CEP. Dated 1913 when first published in Chippewa County: Wisconsin Past and Present.
  • Homage to Wilfrid Scawen Blunt. CEP. First published in The Times, January 20, 1914.
  • Pastoral. CEP. First published in BLAST, June 20, 1914. War Verse (1914); 1915: February. P. These two poems were not published during Pound's lifetime.
  • Gnomic Verses; Our Respectful Homages to M. Laurent Tailhade. CEP. First published in BLAST, July 1915.
  • Et Faim Sallir les Loups des Boys. CEP. First published in BLAST, July 1915.
  • Love-Song to Eunoë. CEP. First published in Smart Set, July 1915.
  • Another Man's Wife. CEP. First published in Others, November 1915.
  • Reflection. CEP. First published in Smart Set, July 1915.
  • 12 Occupations. 12 Occupations by Jean de Bosschère (London: Elkin Mathews, 1916).
  • To a City Sending Him Advertisements. CEP. First published in The Newark Anniversary Poems (New York: Laurence J. Gomme, 1917).
  • Chanson Arabe; Dawn on the Mountain; Wine. Little Review, November 1918.
  • A Canticle. Much Ado, January 1, 1920.
  • Fever Chart. The Dial, September 1920.
  • Troubadour Songs. "Sad song ye hear,": transcription from the musical score Five Troubadour Songs: With the Original Provençal Words and English Words Adapted from Chaucer, Arranged by Agnes Bedford (London, Boosey & Co., 1920). "When new buds thrust the leaves aside"; "When cometh in the flow'ry time"; "Although thou leave me now, so vixen strange"; "Call that not life, wherein love hath no part"; "Say that sweet my sorrow was"; "In sorrow now I know well": FB.
  • Highbrow's Translation of Horace. Readies for Bob Brown's Machine (Cagnes-sur-mer, France: Roving Eye Press, 1931).
  • "I think thou has looked on every valour and all"; "Amore and Lagia, Guido Orlandi and I": PC.
  • "Guido, Gianni that saw you yesterday"; "In your gentle salute"; "Guard thee well guard thee well I say"; "We are the sad bewildered quills": FB.
  • "Gentle Jheezus sleek and wild": An "Objectivists" Anthology (New York: To Press, 1932).
  • Drafts for Cavalcanti: A Sung Dramedy in 3 Acts. FB.
  • "If the prelates would take"; "King Constantine, as I will relate": FB.
  • Envoi'. Quarterly Review of Literature, V, 2 (1949).
  • "Thais habet nigros. . ." Imagi, V, 2 (1950).
  • Papillon: Edge, May 1957.
  • Old Zuk; More: European, January 1959.
  • By the River of Stars: Mary de Rachilwiltz (ed.), Catai (Milan: Vanni Scheiwiller, 1987)
  • Age of Gold: Confucius to Cummings (New Directions, 1964).
  • Pigeons: Sunday Times Weekly Review (London), April 26, 1970.
  • Prayer for a Dead Brother: Antigonish Review, Winter 1971-1972.

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